Human intrahepatic regulatory T cells are functional, require IL-2 from effector cells for survival, and are susceptible to Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis
Regulatory T cells (Treg) suppress T effector cell proliferation and maintain immune homeostasis. Autoimmune liver diseases persist despite high frequencies of Treg in the liver, suggesting that the local hepatic microenvironment might affect Treg stability, survival, and function. We hypothesized that interactions between Treg and endothelial cells during recruitment and then with epithelial cells within the liver affect Treg stability, survival, and function.
The 3-month readmission rate remains unacceptably high in a large North American cohort of patients with cirrhosis
In smaller single-center studies, patients with cirrhosis are at a high readmission risk, but a multicenter perspective study is lacking. We evaluated the determinants of 3-month readmissions among inpatients with cirrhosis using the prospective 14-center North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease cohort.
Hepatitis B reactivation in patients exposure undergoing rituximab-containing chemotherapy for lymphoma
PURPOSE:Patterns of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) -negative, antihepatitis B core antigen antibody (anti-HBc) -positive patients with lymphoma receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy have not been well described.
The Societal Burden of Chronic Liver Diseases.
Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) impose a significant socioeconomic burden on patients and the healthcare system, but to what extent remains underexplored. We estimated costs and health-related-quality-of-life (HRQoL) among patients with CLDs at different stages and with different aetiologies.
Biology of the immunomodulatory molecule HLA-G in human liver diseases.
The non-classical human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), plays an important role in inducing tolerance, through its immunosuppressive effects on all types of immune cells. Immune tolerance is a key issue in the liver, both in liver homeostasis and in the response to liver injury or cancer.
MiR-199a-5p is negatively associated with malignancies and regulates glycolysis in liver cancer.
Cancer cells possess a unique metabolic phenotype that allows them to preferentially utilize glucose through aerobic glycolysis. This phenomenon is referred to as the "Warburg effect."
TDF-associated Fanconi syndrome and nephrotic syndrome in a patient with CHB monoinfection.
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is widely used as an effective first-line therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. While TDF demonstrates successful viral suppression, it has been linked to the development of renal proximal tubular (PT) dysfunction, leading to Fanconi syndrome.
Low vitamin D serum concentration is associated with high levels of hepatitis B virus replication in chronically infected patients.
Vitamin D is an important immune modulator that plays an emerging role in inflammatory and metabolic liver diseases, including infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). In contrast, the relationship between vitamin D metabolism and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is less well characterized.
Causes of death in people with chronic HBV infection
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Mortality related to hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not well known in developed countries. The aim of this study was to investigate in a population-based cohort the excess risk of death in HBV patients compared with mortality in the general population and to identify risk factors related to all-cause mortality and HBV-related mortality.
Sustained efficacy and seroconversion with the Toll-like receptor
BACKGROUND & AIMS:New therapies for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are urgently needed since current treatments rarely lead to cure. We eva luated whether the oral small molecule toll-like receptor (TLR7) agonist GS-9620 could induce durable antiviral efficacy in woodchucks chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), a hepadnavirus closely related to human hepatitis B virus (HBV).